Developmental Mechanisms Problem Set

Problem 5 Tutorial: Fate of embryonic germ layers

Which embryonic germ layer has as one of its fates to become brain and nervous system:
The primary germinal layers are the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Each gives rise to a specific set of tissues and organs, as described in the table below.

Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm
epidermis of skin
hair, nails, sweat glands
enamel of teeth
lining of nasal cavity, anus
nervous system, including brain
cornea, lens, retina of eye
adrenal medulla
posterior pituitary gland
portions of all sense organs
dermis of skin
all connective tissues
bone marrow
all muscle tissue
kidneys and ureters
testes and ovaries
adrenal cortex
lining of blood vessels
lymphatic tissue, vessels
mucosa of digestive tract
alveoli of lungs
liver and pancreas
thyroid and parathyroid glands
lining of urinary bladder
lining of urethra, vagina
anterior pituitary gland
thymus gland

The Biology Project
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics
The University of Arizona
Thursday, October 30, 1997
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